With energy-consuming equipment, such as water heaters and refrigerators, we have good data on energy consumption and can set clear standards accordingly. In some product categories—clothes washers, for example—Energy Star standards were adopted because those standards provide a high enough threshold to represent just the very top segment of the product market (less than 10%). In other product categories—e.g., refrigerators and dishwashers—we set a higher threshold than ENERGY STAR: for example, exceeding those standards by 10% or 20%. With lighting and lighting control equipment, certain generic products qualify, such as compact fluorescent lamps and occupancy/daylighting controls, while in other categories only a subset of products qualify. In some cases, products that meet the energy efficiency requirements are excluded, because of evidence of poor performance or durability. Microturbines are included here because of the potential for cogeneration (combined heat and power) that they offer.
The four models in the sealed-combustion Laser kerosene heater line from Toyotomi offer heating efficiencies ranging from 90 to 93% (AFUE rating of 87.7%) while providing outputs from 5,200 to 40,000 Btu/hr. The units have heat-circulation fans and require 120-volt AC power, generating a preheating load of 260-280 watts, and a burning load of 42-76 watts. An external fuel tank is usually required. Units feature electronic ignition (no pilot light), setback thermostat, automatic safety shutoff, and power failure recovery. The cabinet stays cool to the touch.
In highly energy-efficient homes and small commercial buildings, it is often possible to satisfy all heating demands with space heaters rather than a central, distributed heating system. Products listed here include high-efficiency, quiet space heaters.
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